Read Wav File Python

Monkey’s Audio is a fast and easy way to compress digital music. import matplotlib. I contend that the bit depth is also important and necessary in some circumstances. Creating Large XML Files in Python. py; RFA file version using Python rvtver. One of the most common tasks that you can do with Python is reading and writing files. Use the open() function with mode rb or wb to read or write binary data. Search the web for sounds and sound effects for free using Find Sounds! To get started, type the name of a sound into the search box above OR click on a category of sound effects below. A mode of 'r' or 'rb' returns a Wave_read object, while a mode of 'w' or 'wb' returns a Wave_write object. Okay, now it's time to write the sine wave to a file. Python provides inbuilt functions for creating, writing and reading files. The wave module in Python's standard library is an easy interface to the audio WAV format. The file system itself can reveal some interesting information about a document. csv” file present in the “M. Python Write Binary File. WAV, are the audio waves stored as numbers, and MP3 files are a compressed version of the. The glob module finds all the path names matching a specified pattern. Put the module in some place accessible by python (either next to your application, or in a directory from sys. Evil, in this 007-like classic comedy. This tutorial will give a detailed introduction to CSV’s and the modules and classes available for reading and writing data to CSV files. Having changed the question from "process a CSV file" into "convert an iterable into a namedtuple sequence" allows me to leave the job of reading the CSV files to the right object, i. blocks ('myfile. The Python Standard Library Introduction The sys module Command Line Arguments More sys The os module Summary 15. This Python video tutorial show how to read and visualize Audio files (in this example - wav format files) by Python. Among the major new features in Python 3. The function scipy. First the original size of the file is read from the first 8 bytes of the encrypted file. If you can't make that work, you may need to pre-process the data to strip leading and trailing spaces and replace every multi-space string with a tab. The easiest way would be to install a python game/media library like pygame, pyglet or pySFML and use that to play your mp3. JuK supports collections of MP3, Ogg Vorbis, and FLAC audio files. read("filepath") then x[0] is the sample rate, and x[1] is the array of data. This is a list of file signatures, data used to identify or verify the content of a file. Python - Re-tag FLAC Audio Files (Update Metadata) I had a bunch of FLAC (. It uses the combination of an Arduino and Processing program to process the file. To install NumPy, we strongly recommend using a scientific Python distribution. After that, the 6. Stack Exchange Network. pip will download the PyAudio source and build it for your version of Python. We do not provide any hacked, cracked, illegal, pirated version of scripts, codes, components downloads. Finally Using Finally Summary 14. User can pass already open file to wave. The Receive format is: Read in data and extract header block. SoundFile can read and write sound files. FIX: link to python file object. It represents about the simplest possible use of the ALSA Audio API, and isn't meant to be a real program. First, get some junk audio in PCM format (test. 'wb' Write only mode. Also referred to as pulse code modulation or waveform audio, a WAV file is uncompressed audio. MindManager is a comprehensive organizer for PC. Unfortunately, the manual is not very clear. Sound files can also be read in short, optionally overlapping blocks with soundfile. Python provides inbuilt functions for creating, writing and reading files. (Formerly known as the IPython Notebook)¶ The IPython Notebook is now known as the Jupyter Notebook. Check also that other article for the same with video files. What is a WAV file ? Basically a WAV file can contain many different formats of audio data, but in 99% it contains raw audio data. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Reading zip file can be done by importing a package called "zipfile". Because I want to create a sub which will read this data and save it to a table regarding the file. Also referred to as pulse code modulation or waveform audio, a WAV file is uncompressed audio. Read the file line by line, then give each line to espeak in a for loop. In this section we extend the set of simple abstractions (command-line input and standard output) that we have been using as the interface between our Python programs and the outside world to include standard input, standard draw, and standard audio. Any project that uses audio will usually start out using WAVE files for its on-disk presence, and as with many things in Python, there's a standard library module for that. pandas is an open source, BSD-licensed library providing high-performance, easy-to-use data structures and data analysis tools for the Python programming language. Returning to programming issues, we discussed several approaches to read the BasicFileInfo and RVT OLE storage, aka COM Structured Storage, to retrieve stuff like the file version and preview image, and, more lately, alternative access to BIM data via Forge: RVT file version using Python rvtver. So, here in this tutorial, I am going to show you how to play mp3 audio in Python. How do I make my python program to wait some time (several seconds)? Like this: print & do stuff wait 6 seconds continue doing stuff. There are nine PySynth variants now: PySynth A, the oldest variant, only needs Python itself, and sounds somewhat like a cross between a flute and organ. Basically that alternative is vlc. The byte stream representing the object can then be transmitted or stored, and later reconstructed to create a new object with the same characteristics. with 'sudo') ask OS kernel to prioritise this process Advanced: limit the number of samples output from each iteration of every block's work. First we need to read the. 25 milliseconds will be OK in normal cases. mp4, which has the highest resolution among all the input video streams. They are from various sources and their metadata (tags) were somewhat incomplete or incorrect. Reading zip file can be done by importing a package called “zipfile”. The glob module finds all the path names matching a specified pattern. That means it will read a value from 0 to 1023 (2 10 = 1024 values). Omnifocus 2, which is the best for you?. The one thing you don't want to do is handle them as string data, because strings implies characters, which are frequently translated if yoiu do not fit. I have read WAV files as data/numbers into MATLAB before for fourier analysis etc and am now trying to do the same with Excel. We are going to use Python’s inbuilt wave library. ALSA and Python; Installation; Testing; PCM Terminology and Concepts. The Processing program will read the text file in real time, only sending new information to the Arduino. This tutorial provides a basic Python programmer's introduction to working with protocol buffers. It is equivalent to: from winsound import Beep. There are two types of files that can be handled in python, normal text files and binary files (written in binary language,0s and 1s). Can anyone help with converting a text file to a 2-D array in Python using NumPy (or something similar)? that will read RGB tuples directly from the image file (e. In the Open With dialog box, click the program whith which you want the file to open, or click Browse to locate the program that you want. 'wb' Write only mode. How can i change it to speech out everything. The audio clips need to be converted from. We do not provide any hacked, cracked, illegal, pirated version of scripts, codes, components downloads. Return the sample rate (in samples/sec) and data from a WAV file. Send end block containing the file hash when done. But it makes no provision for additional data in the chunks, so it's really not adhering to the RIFF interface specification. This Python video tutorial show how to read and visualize Audio files (in this example - wav format files) by Python. WAV is a file extension for an audio file format created by Microsoft. The goal is not to produce many different sounds, but to have scripts that can turn ABC notation or MIDI files into a WAV file without too much tinkering. Python novices might find Peter’s introductory Biopython Workshop useful which start with working with sequence files using SeqIO. An MFA file is similar in that the file extension closely resembles ". The main difference is in the ease of use and supported file formats. Play audio by writing audio data to the stream using pyaudio. from_wav ( "never_gonna_give_you_up. This process is also called serializing” the object. wav" command = ['sox', filename, '-c', '1', newfilename] subprocess. In most cases, only one camera is connected to the system. Manipulating files is called "I/O" in programming terms and Python offers the same facilities to read and write to files as most programming languages. We've gathered the best free apps for the Mac, all in one place so you don't have to go digging. Whenever you read a Byte in Python, a string is returned from '\0x00' to '\0xff'. This is a list of file signatures, data used to identify or verify the content of a file. Text To Speech (TTS) But i want to convert the text into speech ans i installed gtts but only the last one pi cam read is come out as audio. The language used here is C, and has been compiled using GCC under Linux, but it can be easily run under Windows also with minimal modifications. eyeD3 - A tool for working with audio files, specifically MP3 files containing ID3 metadata. Instead of just exposing the C API of the powerful Eric De Castro Lopo's libsndfile, it enables common Python idioms and numpy bridging for signal processing. Using Snack you can create powerful multi-platform audio applications with just a few lines of code. Catch GStreamer’s exception when necessary components, such as uridecodebin, are missing. Implementations [] C [] #include #include char* readFileBytes(const char *name) { FILE *fl = fopen(name, "r"); fseek(fl, 0, SEEK_END); long len. This article shows how easy it is to read or write audio files in a few lines Python, by calling the external software FFMPEG through pipes. 'wb' Write only mode. We are going to use Python's inbuilt wave library. We will make use of the speech recognition API to perform this task. I am just trying to read the wav file using scipy using the following code: from scipy. The basic idea is to create an array of samples in a buffer using some features. MFA files are either MobileFrame App files or Multimedia Fusion Development files. The file can be an open file or a filename. Visit Stack Exchange. Python provides inbuilt functions for creating, writing and reading files. Parsing a WAV file using basic Python. au format to. Hence, in Python, a file operation takes place in the following order. wav is on the same directory as your script, we can do this with scipy:. If the file does not exist, it creates a new file for reading and writing. Here I post (for the benefit of friends, family, and random Googlers alike) two examples of super-simplistic ways to read PCM data from Python using Numpy to handle the data and Matplotlib to display it. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. If anyone has got around the memory limit or can show an example of splitting a wav file into chunks, i would like to see. The first and easiest way is to use the MATLAB-like API. What Matters in Motoring Fri, 01 Jul 2016 14:10:58 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress. In this post we will learn how to perform the same test using the Python programming language. latency This is the same as InputStream, except that the callback function and read() work on plain Python buffer objects instead of on NumPy arrays. Files-conversion provides you a free service to convert any format. """ from __future__ import division, print_function import argparse try: import queue # Python 3. - ffmpeg -t option can now be used for inputs, to limit the duration of data read from an input file - incomplete Voxware MetaSound decoder - read EXIF metadata from JPEG - DVB teletext decoder - phase filter ported from libmpcodecs - w3fdif filter - Opus support in Matroska - FFV1 version 1. It has the basic capability of any shell script and advanced tools, such as regular expressions, that make it useful. It would be better to read it in pieces by passing read a size. This is an enhanced version of a basic WAV code example on the PyAudio site. Alternatively, you can generate it by yourself using the generate. First, open the file. Yes, there is a problem. py darwin. eyeD3 - A tool for working with audio files, specifically MP3 files containing ID3 metadata. Use Homebrew to install the prerequisite portaudio library, then install PyAudio using pip:. I am looking for a well maintained Python library with allows me to play audio files on my Raspberry Pi using the standard audio output. read¶ scipy. The Python code used to read the "management. How to merge multiple files into a new file using Python? Python Server Side Programming Programming To merge multiple files in a new file, you can simply read files and write them to a new file using loops. But it makes no provision for additional data in the chunks, so it's really not adhering to the RIFF interface specification. This is commonly used in voice assistants like Alexa, Siri, etc. py from the previous section:. Preston Claudio T. Okay, now it’s time to write the sine wave to a file. Theano is a python library that makes writing deep learning models easy, and gives the option of training them on a GPU. wav , but the output is just 'garbage'. First, head to Step 1 and click the Get Noise Profile button. Processing. Download Sample Audio. Here is a short tutorial on how to use the wave module. I'm curious to see how this turns out for you. Read the file line by line, then give each line to espeak in a. This will return a file object back to you that you can use to read or manipulate the contents of the file. Beep(freq, duration * 1000) But of course wave files can also be used to generate any other kinds of sounds. Use glob module. A mode of 'r' or 'rb' returns a Wave_read object, while a mode of 'w' or 'wb' returns a Wave_write object. Access to HTTP environment, to form fields, to the exceptions defined by Karrigell are made the same way as in Python scripts 7. Here is a short tutorial on how to use the wave module. Perl is an ideal language for working with files. Introduction to Python and to the sms-tools package, the main programming tool for the course. In this tutorial we will use Google Speech Recognition Engine with Python. \0x is the standard way of declaring something is hexadecimal in Python (the hex values are 0 to 9, and a to f (the letters can be either lowercase or capital. Note that it does not allow read/write WAV files. dll from windows to be able to create a WAV sound file from excel and also to be able to play them. The best way to handle audio streaming in Python is by using a module - Pygame. wav recording of my wifes lectures into a text file. This part of the process, taking each row of csv and converting it into an XML element, went fairly smoothly thanks to the xml. One useful method is to import CSV files into Pandas dataframes. dll from windows to be able to create a WAV sound file from excel and also to be able to play them. You access to the sound data directly by calling GetData() method. PortAudio is an excellent multiplatform library for playing and recording sound, chosen because of its simplicity and generic usefulness. pack is a method to decompose a value to array of value we defined. It'll save a. In this tutorial of AI with Python Speech Recognition, we will learn to read an audio file with Python. This small tutorial describes basic objects that allow you to play sound on all supported platforms. The first and easiest way is to use the MATLAB-like API. The language used here is C, and has been compiled using GCC under Linux, but it can be easily run under Windows also with minimal modifications. The Python 3. While there are existing libraries in several languages which allow you to work with WAV files, this post is an attempt to understand how to read the WAV file format without any external library. Getting PySerial in Python: The next step is to install pyserial. PySoundFile can read and write sound files. Half of the code (the readadc function) is a function that will 'talk' to the MCP3008 chip using four digital pins to 'bit bang' the SPI interface (this is because not all Raspberry Pi's have the hardware SPI function). There are several tools out there to help you do this, but I will focus on the one that I think is the best and easiest to use: pdfminer. I've been trying to use a discrete wavelet transform on a. Processing. open() and file position can be not 0 at the start of the WAVE file. So I have a project to do for college that involve me reading a wav file and then performing an FFT of the data to produce a spectrogram. mode can be: 'rb' Read only mode. He built a device to play multiple sound files on multiple output devices using off the shelf hardware and software. This module doesn't come up by default with either of the versions(2. When running click on a black triangle to move one pixel in the direction the triangle points. Python’s “batteries included” nature makes it easy to interact with just about anything… except speakers and a microphone! As of this moment, there still are not standard libraries which which allow cross-platform interfacing with audio devices. Such signatures are also known as magic numbers or Magic Bytes. The byte stream representing the object can then be transmitted or stored, and later reconstructed to create a new object with the same characteristics. You’ll see a dialogue box with a two-step tool. It is up to the user to choose the correct type for the given wav file's sample resolution. More information on the project I am doing can be found here. The Python code used to read the “management. mode is used as the default value for mode (the 'b' flag is still added if necessary). wav file, but haven't been able to successfully write the resulting array to a. WAV, are the audio waves stored as numbers, and MP3 files are a compressed version of the. File reading/writing is supported through libsndfile , which is a free, cross-platform, open-source (LGPL) library for reading and writing many different sampled sound file formats that runs on many platforms including Windows, OS X, and Unix. I have the privilege of living in one of the most beautiful countries in the world, but unfortunately, it's not all roses. You don’t have to worry about python interpreter. Use glob module. According to the docs , depending on the nature of the audio file scipy. He built a device to play multiple sound files on multiple output devices using off the shelf hardware and software. To append to a file, use access mode a, and to open a file for writing and reading (without clobbering), use w+. To get started, type the name of a sound into the search box above OR click on a category of sound effects below. In this tutorial we will use Google Speech Recognition Engine with Python. The basic idea is to create an array of samples in a buffer using some features. ZIP file read in Python. This tutorial will walk through using Google Cloud Speech API to transcribe a large audio file. Python also comes with ftplib for FTP … Continue reading Python 101: How to Download a File →. For audio, it will select stream 3 from B. 'w', 'wb' Write only mode. Deep Learning Tutorials ¶. Play sound in Python. This course will cover Chapters 6-10 of the textbook “Python for Everybody”. So PEP 8 tells you that :. That object provides basic functions and methods necessary to manipulate files by default. - ffmpeg -t option can now be used for inputs, to limit the duration of data read from an input file - incomplete Voxware MetaSound decoder - read EXIF metadata from JPEG - DVB teletext decoder - phase filter ported from libmpcodecs - w3fdif filter - Opus support in Matroska - FFV1 version 1. I've included a simple example. The function scipy. tinytag - A library for reading music meta data of MP3, OGG, FLAC and Wave files. The struct module is used to read a few data values. Can someone help point me in the right direction?. Fix a hang in GStreamer when the stream finishes before it begins (when reading broken files). The audioread function can support WAVE, OGG, FLAC, AU, MP3, and MPEG-4 AAC files. Play MP3 sound in Python using playsound. This recipe shows how to use PyAudio, a 3rd-party Python audio toolkit, to play a list of WAV files on your computer. wav recording of my wifes lectures into a text file. Python’s “batteries included” nature makes it easy to interact with just about anything… except speakers and a microphone! As of this moment, there still are not standard libraries which which allow cross-platform interfacing with audio devices. wav format to make it compatible with python’s wave module for reading audio files. Depending on whether you modify the cassette recorder or not, you can get around 1. We are going to use Python’s inbuilt wave library. Wave Files are read using the struct and wave modules. PlaySound(data,winsound. Such signatures are also known as magic numbers or Magic Bytes. The Cloud Text-to-Speech API accepts input as raw text or Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML). Get newsletters and notices that include site news, special offers and exclusive discounts about IT products & services. In most cases, only one camera is connected to the system. How to read WAVE files in Python Thu 07 April 2016. Read mode is the default mode for files you open in Python. Although much of it is written in pure Python, the libcdio library is used to read from a CD-ROM drive and various POSIX C Python extension modules are included for speed-sensitive operations such as file encoding, resampling or ReplayGain calculation. Supports cross-domain, chunked and resumable file uploads and client-side image resizing. system("audio. Use the audioread function to read the file, handel. Alternatively, to generate audio data on. Now we read the file as an array of bytes. File reading/writing is supported through libsndfile , which is a free, cross-platform, open-source (LGPL) library for reading and writing many different sampled sound file formats that runs on many platforms including Windows, OS X, and Unix. Anderson Gilbert A. In OpenCV, a video can be read either by using the feed from a camera connected to a computer or by reading a video file. Example: using Audacity to record a. wav file, for playback. Note: Refer to the Compatibility and feature support table to see the differences between the Google Assistant Library and the service. I am looking for a well maintained Python library with allows me to play audio files on my Raspberry Pi using the standard audio output. The book features the source code to 11 games. Data analysis takes many forms. Here's an example of how you can import a sound file and then plot it so you can see it. 10 Fri, 01 Jul 2016 14:10:58 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https. Python - Re-tag FLAC Audio Files (Update Metadata) I had a bunch of FLAC (. There are several modules that can play a sound file (. This process is also called serializing” the object. These are online converters, which means you have to upload the WAV file to the website, have it converted, and then download it back to your computer. See Installing the SciPy Stack for details. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Making Games was written as a sequel for the same age range as Invent with Python. Python makes programming fun and allows you to focus on the solution rather than syntax. there is a method in this class called GetAvgBytesPerSec() which you could use to read a "1 second" from the WAVE sound file. Manipulate audio with a simple and easy high level interface Open a WAV file from pydub import AudioSegment song = AudioSegment. In order to work with Perl files, you first need to learn how to read and write to them. XMLGenerator class. Because I want to create a sub which will read this data and save it to a table regarding the file. wav') %matplotlib inline plt. Manipulating files is an essential aspect of scripting in Python, and luckily for us, the process isn’t complicated. The best way to handle audio streaming in Python is by using a module - Pygame. read¶ scipy. Popen(command). This course covers Python 3. Do not change any setting while installing. Use Homebrew to install the prerequisite portaudio library, then install PyAudio using pip:. Check also that other article for the same with video files. duration is the length of the audio in seconds (a float). We need to be very careful while writing data into the file as it overwrites the content present inside the file that you are writing, and all the previous data will be erased. I download this MP3 file, uncompress it to a WAV, then read in the WAV file as a data arrray. Introduction to SeqIO. Here's the issue: I have no idea what I'm doing. You can open files, write data to them, read the data back in, and so on. \0x is the standard way of declaring something is hexadecimal in Python (the hex values are 0 to 9, and a to f (the letters can be either lowercase or capital. Read the file line by line, then give each line to espeak in a for loop. wave 파일이 stereo 라면 wave_channel1, wave_channel2 에 각 채널의 데이터가 들어가고~ mono 면 wave_channel1에만 데이터가 저장 됩니다. JuK supports collections of MP3, Ogg Vorbis, and FLAC audio files. In this article we showed you how to use the csv Python module to both read and write CSV data to a. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. Reading a file is done in Perl by opening a filehandle to a specific resource. py First 10 bytes via read : Lorem ipsu First 10 bytes via slice: Lorem ipsu 2nd 10 bytes via read : m dolor si Writing ¶ To set up the memory mapped file to receive updates, start by opening it for appending with mode 'r+' (not 'w' ) before mapping it. py Python program, that shows how to load H264 video frames from the camera and save them to a local file. 25 milliseconds will be OK in normal cases. A mode of 'r' or 'rb' returns a Wave_read object, while a mode of 'w' or 'wb' returns a Wave_write object. 0 which would mean that all sample values read from the file will be zero. One common way to perform such an analysis is to use a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to convert the sound from the frequency domain to the time domain. plot(data) plt. Working With Audio Files. For implementation details, see the SeqIO development page. One of the most common tasks that you can do with Python is reading and writing files. Using Snack you can create powerful multi-platform audio applications with just a few lines of code. They are extracted from open source Python projects. py, which loads the whole file into memory before starting playback, this example program only holds a given number of audio blocks in memory and is therefore able to play files that are larger than the available RAM. wave 파일이 stereo 라면 wave_channel1, wave_channel2 에 각 채널의 데이터가 들어가고~ mono 면 wave_channel1에만 데이터가 저장 됩니다. Contrary to popular misconception, adding metadata to WAV files does not break the format. The file pointer is at the end of the file if the file exists. Click on Pyserial Windows to download PySerial. Whether to read data as memory-mapped. wav file as a python array, assuming knock. 'wb' Write only mode. The module uses the wave module in Python's standard library, so. Okay, here's what I am up to now. This device can play back short audio clips and features a really big arcade button that lights up when you press it. All we have to do is open command prompt and enter the name of your file it will play that file using your default media player. Open 2Do and go to Settings > Sync and setup sync with this new Toodledo …2do oder omnifocus Omni Groups 29 $. SeqIO, the standard Sequence Input/Output interface for BioPython 1. Want to test the music in your app? Does sound in your app appears legible to hear? Sample-Videos not just allow programmers, testers, designers, developers to download sample videos but even mp3 sound file for demo/test use. 1 Python variables. Use the open() function with mode rb or wb to read or write binary data. audio_transcribe. Audio fingerprinting seemed magical the first time I saw it. File Upload widget with multiple file selection, drag&drop support, progress bars, validation and preview images, audio and video for jQuery. Preston Claudio T. Okay, now it's time to write the sine wave to a file. Powered by WebAIM Need more than just one page at a time? Dinolytics is an enterprise-level web accessibility evaluation system based on WAVE that provides site-wide monitoring and reporting of accessibility over time. I just wanted someone to check my code. WAV, are the audio waves stored as numbers, and MP3 files are a compressed version of the. The first step towards reading a video file is to create a VideoCapture object. It would be better to read it in pieces by passing read a size. FIX: link to python file object. They are extracted from open source Python projects. So far I've tried several, but none of them seem to work. I download this MP3 file, uncompress it to a WAV, then read in the WAV file as a data arrray. Open a file; Read or write (perform operation) Close the file. duration is the length of the audio in seconds (a float). Python Write Binary File. We need to be very careful while writing data into the file as it overwrites the content present inside the file that you are writing, and all the previous data will be erased. In this tutorial of AI with Python Speech Recognition, we will learn to read an audio file with Python. MFA files are either MobileFrame App files or Multimedia Fusion Development files. Before you continue, you’ll need to download an audio file. A mode of 'r' or 'rb' returns a Wave_read object, while a mode of 'w' or 'wb' returns a Wave_write object. If you try to open a file for writing that does not already exist, it is first created for. PySoundFile can read and write sound files. Among the large collection of code are numerous utilities which are useful when writing low-level 3D code. Audio in Python. This is an example for generating sound using wave files. Python provides an API called SpeechRecognition to allow us to convert audio into text for further processing. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: